Northeast Philadelphia-19154: Geographic And Environmental Influences On Community

Photo by Tom Pottiger on Unsplash

Abstract

This paper will lead a community assessment of Northeast Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. Northeast Philadelphia County is situated in the core of Philadelphia. This paper will further discuss the windshield survey of the community, their population, economic situation, neighborhood, cultural aspects, safety factors, and much needed priority interventions. This paper will also discuss the proposed interventions to be carried out by nurses to address the priority problems in the Northeast Philadelphia community. Northeast Philadelphia formed into an attractive objective for those looking to improve their financial and social life inside Philadelphia’s city limits. This assessment will address the wellbeing needs and dangers of Northeast Philadelphia County using the windshield survey appraisal structures distinguishing the populace’s monetary status, neighborhood and network security stock, social appraisal, and the calamity appraisal and arranging guide. From this community assessment paper, we will interpret the health status of the community and formulate a logical intervention to solve the priority problems followed by evaluation of these interventions.

Keywords: Community, environment, the population, priority health problems, history of the community, the windshield survey, demographics, priority interventions, evaluation of the problems.

Northeast Philadelphia-19154: Geography and environmental Influences On Community

Introduction

As per Allender, Rector, and Warner (2014), general wellbeing is a blend of both workmanship and a science (2014). The mission of general well being nursing is to advance welfare, forestall illness and eventually elongate someone’s life (Allender et al., 2014). For this goal to happen, an appraisal is needed first. An assortment of information is the start to a total evaluation of a community. This incorporates: the network’s health and wellness needs, potential hazards, ecological conditions, monetary assets through nearby evaluation information, and a windshield overview (Allender et al., 2014). This will allow the nurse(s) to gather enough information on the network in order to come up with a plan of action for that community. With the help of the community nurses, people within the community are able to participate in the effort to meet the health and wellness goals of the network.

The Northeast Philadelphia community needs numerous evaluations and one of a kind structures. The entire network requires evaluation(s) that is expected to look for data on the various sorts of necessities of the network. This should incorporate the gathering of data from the network dependent on the people residing in the community. It should include their genuine beliefs, their feelings, all of the regulated and communicated needs, and the resources that are available. With all of this data, the capacity at which gathering all of the necessities for health and wellness advancement can be actualized.

The motivation behind this community needs to be reevaluated in order to decide the advantages and shortcomings of the network and the capacity at which the community will respond well to any and all advancement procedures and arrangements. When individuals within a community are involved in the process of building upon a neighborhood in a positive way, more than likely, they will feel more dedicated to the programs and improvements that have been made. Along with this, the evaluation and implementation process will be expedited and provide a better picture of the network. Therefore, it is significant that the entirety of the network is involved in the process. An attendant should work alongside other health and wellness experts. Also, those within the community should be included in the decisions with which influence their environment. As nurses, we are more aware that clinical experts are liable for treating huge multifarious populations. Understanding the social contrasts in different populations is significant to deliver positive results. Medical professionals have a significant role in the advancement of medical care. Attendants should regard the patient as a priority and a human being. This should be remembered when treating the network as well. Singular, family, climate, and network appraisals are important to provide in order to improve the results from medical care in the network.

Northeast Philadelphia, zip code 19154

A map showing Northeast Philadelphia. Source: Smalarz, (2014)

Background/History of The Community

Northeast Philadelphia was founded during World War II. It was a sparsely populated farming land. After the war, the area was developed to be a desirable destination for the people who sought to improve their economic, social as well as their cultural standing within the city boundary (Smalarz, 2014). Northeast Philadelphia came to symbolize a middle-class society and it has been that up to present date. The area is rooted in homeownership, mass affluence, and commercial development. Nonetheless, it has experienced acrimonious tension between the white and black races. It has, to date, been confronted by politicians and policymakers concerned about municipal services, commercial, and zoning. Since World War II, the area has undergone vast racial, economic, and spatial transformations. Northeast Philadelphia’s earliest occupants were Indians and Swedish settlers before 1680 when it was still a colony (Smalarz, 2014). In the 19th century, Philadelphia was a flourishing industrial area that attracted groups of immigrants, including the Polish, Germans, Italians, and other European immigrant communities. In the 20th century, the city’s elected officials took an initiative to undertake infrastructural development, and this attracted the suburbanites (Smalarz, 2014). During the great depression, people were discouraged from constructing houses, and the economic tension between the various classes in the society was exacerbated. The 21st century came with rising prosperity for middle-class people. There was also a rise in racial tension here. Black people were segregated from owning houses despite the policies that were passed. Over the last two decades, the population of Northeast Philadelphia became more diverse, and there are more racial defiance and material affluence (Smalarz, 2014).

Demographics of the Community

Near Northeast Philadelphia Population:

Demographics: Data sources © 2020 UnitedStatesZipCodes.org.

© 2020 UnitedStatesZipCodes.org

According to United States Zip codes, the Zip code 19154 is situated in southeast Pennsylvania and covers a somewhat less than normal land territory of land area with 6.34 sq mi and water area of 0.06 sq mi contrasted with other Zip codes in the surroundings (UnitedStatesZipCodes, 2020). As we can see in the above graph, the population is drastically decreasing over the time. The population estimate in 2020 is 34,196 people with the population density of 5,397 people per sq mi. In this community, the median age of 39years with 49% male with the median age of 38years and 51% female with the median age of 40 (UnitedStatesZipCodes, 2020). The median value of homes is $204,000 with the total housing units of 13,246 and a total of 12,705 housing units are occupied. The median household income is $58,319 (UnitedStatesZipCodes, 2020). There are likewise an enormous number of children and a marginally less than average normal number of older adults.

© 2020 UnitedStatesZipCodes.org

Individuals living in Zip code 19154 are principally white 86.2%, Black or African American are 6.6%, American Indian or Alaskan Native 0.1%, Asian 3.0%, and other races 2.0% (UnitedStatesZipCodes, 2020). As we can see in the graph below, the racial diversity is far less common.

© 2020 UnitedStatesZipCodes.org

© 2020 UnitedStatesZipCodes.org

Occupational Employment, earnings and work in Northeast Philadelphia:

The median value of homes is $204,000 with the total housing units of 13,246 and a total of 12,705 housing units are occupied. The median household income is $58,319 (UnitedStatesZipCodes, 2020). In this community, about 37% of the individuals worked full-time with earnings, 27% of the individuals worked part-time with earnings and 35% of the individuals have no earnings (UnitedStatesZipCodes, 2020).

© 2020 UnitedStatesZipCodes.org

© 2020 UnitedStatesZipCodes.org

Northeast Philadelphia Education Statistics:

In this particular Zip code area 19154, the level of education among their residents varied. Residents living in this community are less likely to have college degrees or higher education compared to other surrounding communities. Education attainment for the population 25 year and over demographic graph stated that, there are more high school graduates (68.0%) than bachelor’s degree (12.5%) (UnitedStatesZipCodes, 2020). There are only 3.2% with master’s degree, 0.5% with Professional School degree, and only 0.3% with Doctorate degree (UnitedStatesZipCodes, 2020). Education is one of the variables related with wellbeing literacy. Low proficiency has been connected to chronic weakness outcomes, for example, higher paces of hospitalization, less incessant utilization of preventive administrations, and greater expenses. In the community, particular populations such as ethnic minorities, older adults, low-income level families, and individuals with not exactly a secondary school degree or GED endorsement are more likely to experience low levels of health education such as established.

© 2020 UnitedStatesZipCodes.org

Compare these to the next biggest geographical location like zip codes 19020, 19053, and 19114. 19154 can be arranged socioeconomically as a Middle-class zip code in comparison to the other zip codes in Pennsylvania.

© 2020 UnitedStatesZipCodes.org

Windshield Survey of The Community:

The initial step needed for giving network wellbeing nursing administrations includes an exhaustive evaluation of the network. This can be cultivated by a windshield study, led by mentioning visual objective facts from a vehicle while passing through the area. Significant data and information assortment during a windshield review can be utilized to recognize the wellbeing related necessities of the network and assess the requirement for extra network wellbeing administrations.

Date of survey: November 11, 2020 at 9- 10 AM

Community name and location:

There are gas mandated borders with Jefferson Frankford hospital (4900 Frankford Ave), Kindred hospital (6129 Palmetto St), and Nazareth hospital (2601 Holme Ave) serving the area. These hospitals are available within the borders of the community and are accessible by public transportation and car and include buses and subways. There is limited landscape and farming in the cities, while there are vast tracts of land in rural northern Philadelphia and a lot of landscaping going on. There are numerous numbers of private schools and public schools surrounding the area, and there is no report of overcrowding in these schools.

People: Around 9.30 AM, people are in the streets dressed modestly. There were barely any students that could be observed due to the covid-19 pandemic. The population observed was from numerous races, including Asians, African Americans, whites, Indians, and so forth. Racial and ethnic characteristics are observed on Sunday when people are going for their worship.

Environment- There are large industrial factories in the area. The main industries are for processing food, and the smaller ones are dry-cleaners, artisan stores, and paint stores. There are also banks, an elementary school, high school, beauty school (Empire), a library, church, mosque, dollar store, Walmart, and a mall.

Housing- Most people live in their own houses, or while some rent their own homes, most people in the city rent apartments. The houses are built in different architectural designs. The median value for a house is about $204,000 (“United States Zip Codes.” 2020).

Space use- Land in northeast Philadelphia is mainly residential and for farming while the rest is commercial with large industrial buildings and one public park. Most of the space in this area is private.

Source. Getty Images. Space use in Philadelphia.

Common areas- this include a park that the community members share; there are a few hangout spaces such as bars, sidewalks that are outside the residential buildings, restaurants, a mall, among others. Almost all of these common areas are open to strangers but with the pandemic, only a few people are allowed into these establishments at a given time.

Transportation- The community members mostly own cars while others use public means of transport. Others walk to get to where they need to go. Streets and roads are able to facilitate transport. The area also has gas stations that serve the area and facilitate transportation.

Buses in northeast Philadelphia. Source: Fox Chase (2015).

Services centers- There are several communities that are run by social agencies and health facilities. There are, however, limited after-school activities and recreation centers. There are also many offices for specialists, dentists, psychiatrists, therapists, etc. There were no spiritualists and palmists seen during the survey.

Stores- There are many shops locally and myriad food shops, home furnishing shops, clothing, music, artisan shops, medical stores, and other specialized stores within this area. Community members can walk, take public transport, and drive to the stores they wish. There are also pharmacies like rite aid; there are smoke shops, beer shops, etc.

Community growth- there are a few remodeled houses and some newly built apartments. There were also some street repairs that had been done recently. There was also garbage on the sidewalks. Nonetheless, some houses had a real estate sign.

Healthcare statistics- In the last 20 years, mortality rates have steadily declined, including a 55% decrease in deaths resulting from HIV, a 47% decline in deaths associated with pneumonia and influenza, 21% decline in deaths from cancer (Philadelphia Department of Public Health, 2014). Life expectancy has also increased from 69years to 73years for men and from 76years to 80years for women (Philadelphia Department of Public Health, 2014). There is also an in-movement in third-grade reading proficiency. However, there have been increasing reports of adult and youth smoking, child obesity, newly diagnosed cases of HIV, childhood immunization, homicides, and restaurants not passing the food safety inspection (Philadelphia Department of Public Health, 2014).

Five Priority Health Problems Present Within the Community.

Alcohol and tobacco- are among the leading causes of preventable diseases in the US. Smoking causes various types of cancers, cardiovascular disease, as well as respiratory disease, while excessive alcohol is a risk factor for interpersonal violence, alcohol poisoning, cancers, motor vehicle accidents, etc. (Philadelphia Department of Public Health, 2014). In this area, 23 % of adults smoke and are among the largest population of smokers in the US (Philadelphia Department of Public Health, 2014). Teen smoking is ranked 5th among large cities. (Philadelphia Department of Public Health, 2014). The areas also report 16.5% of the adults to engage in excessive drinking of alcohol and the second-highest percentage in the country. 15.2% of teens in the area also engage in drinking and 6th among the US’s largest cities (Philadelphia Department of Public Health, 2014).

Obesity- these results from poor diet and limited physical activities. 20% of children between 5- 18 years are obese and common among Hispanic boys and non-Hispanic black girls. 31.9% of adults are also obese and hold number 1 in the largest cities in the US (Philadelphia Department of Public Health, 2014).

Cardiovascular disease- premature deaths were 58.5 per 100,000 people for individuals under 65 years of age. 37.5% of adults suffer from hypertension, and 16% suffer from diabetes. (“Community Health Assessment.” 2014).

HIV- the area ranks 5th among the ten largest cities. (Philadelphia Department of Public Health, 2014).

Teen reproductive health- 8 out of 10 teens report having used birth control. There are 52.7 births per 1000 teen girls. In a population of 100,000 teens between 15–19, 6611 have been diagnosed with chlamydia while 1834 were diagnosed with gonorrhea (Philadelphia Department of Public Health, 2014).

The Proposed Interventions

Priority Problem 1: Community knowledge deficit regarding nutrition and lack of options for healthy foods

Nursing Plan: Provide education about healthy living and increase the availability of healthy food options

Assessment: From the windshield survey, it was assessed that the community has an abundance of unhealthy food options that is marketed to both adults and children. There are many opportunities to obtain fast-food and very few restaurants advertising healthy options, produce stands, or other healthy alternatives. Within the zip code 19154, there are only two options for the community to purchase fresh produce; Walmart and Save A Lot. From the nearest bus stop, Save A Lot is a 13 minute walk, compared to a less than five minute walk to Arby’s, KFC, Dunkin Donuts, and McDonald’s from the same bus stop. According to CDC, about 67.9% of adults and 41% of youths in the community are overweight or obese and 25%-30% of the community only gets one serving or less of fruits and vegetables (NCCDPHP: Community Health, 2013).

Interventions:

The first intervention will be to collaborate with the local school district to create a comprehensive, age-appropriate nutrition education program for students. The objective of the education program is to teach children the importance of healthy eating, which foods to have in abundance and which to enjoy in moderation, and to build students’ confidence in choosing and preparing healthy meals. The program will include interactive teaching plans, where students have the opportunity to read nutrition labels and create a dinner menu, as well as a “chefs in training” lesson where students prepare a basic meal in order to expose them to new, healthy foods and to apply their knowledge about nutrition and food safety. Additionally, the education program will provide resources in the form of pamphlets sent home, newsletter emails, and in-person events for the parents to increase knowledge of nutrition in the adult population and to increase the likelihood that the students will utilize their knowledge at home. The content of the comprehensive education program will be created by a Wellness Committee consisting of members of the School Board, teaching faculty, school health professionals, physical education teachers, community nurses, parents/guardians, and students. The course will be an “elective” comparative to an art or music class and will be taught by physical education teachers or school nurses. The course will be taught at a minimum of once a week for the entirety of the school year and students will be given a pretest at the start of the year and a posttest in order to evaluate their knowledge of nutrition at the start of the program versus at the end of the year.

The second intervention is to increase accessibility of healthy food options by collaborating with Get Healthy Philly, which provides grant opportunities for projects that seek to increase the health of individuals in Philadelphia (Five Fall 2020 Funding Opportunities, 2020). The grant money will be used to establish a centrally located small shop in the community where individuals can obtain fresh, healthy, and affordable foods. The shop will offer a variety of fresh produce and ready-to-go healthy snacks/meals, and be in an easily accessible place by public transportation. Establishing the shop will be completed by a team consisting of community nurses, members from Get Healthy Philly, individuals from the community, and individuals from the Philadelphia department of health. The intervention will be evaluated by tracking the sale of fresh produce as well as surveys to compare the statistics to that previously obtained by the CDC regarding fruit and vegetable consumption in Northeast Philadelphia.

If these interventions are successfully implemented, it would be expected that children would have increased knowledge regarding nutrition, which over time would lead to a greater portion of the community understanding and utilizing concepts related to healthy eating. Additionally, it is expected that there would be an increase in the average daily servings of fruit and vegetables due to the increased knowledge and increased accessibility to fresh, healthy foods.

Healthy People:

Successful implementation of this plan supports several objectives of Healthy People 2020 relating to nutrition and weight status. The objectives that our plan supports includes “increase the proportion of Americans who have access to a food retail outlet that sells a variety of foods that are encouraged by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans”, “increase the contribution of fruits and vegetables to the diets of the population ages 2 years and older”, and “prevent inappropriate weight gain in youth” (Nutrition and Weight Status, 2020).

Levels of Prevention:

Primary: First intervention Comprehensive, age-appropriate nutrition education program for students.

Secondary: Second intervention — Target an area of the community with low accessibility to healthy foods and establish a small shop with fresh, healthy, affordable foods.

Priority Problem 2: Alcohol is easily accessible within the community

Nursing Plan: Raising awareness about resources for alcoholism and limiting the availability of alcohol.

Assessment:

From the windshield survey, it was evident that alcohol is easily accessible as we observed several liquor stores clustered in heavily trafficked areas. Upon further research, we found that there are five retailers specifically dedicated to alcohol within the zip code and countless other retailers within a short drive outside of the community. Additionally, many other opportunities to obtain alcohol are present in the community from grocers, tap rooms, bars, and restaurants.

Interventions:

A systematic review comparing 39 studies regarding the effectiveness of limiting alcohol outlet density found that by regulating the density of establishments selling alcohol there was a decrease in alcohol consumption and lower rates of motor vehicle crashes and other alcohol related harms (Campell, 2009). Based on the findings of this review, an effective intervention to reduce alcohol consumption and availability within the community is to limit the amount of liquor stores in the community. In order to accomplish this, we will create a grassroots organization consisting of public health nurses, members of the community, and lobbyists in order to alter local public policies. The organization’s goal is to influence discussion and outcomes of regulations related to limiting retailers that can sell alcohol in the community. This will be accomplished first by educating the public and other stakeholders through letters, phone calls, emails, and office visits to key stakeholders, as well as presenting information in public forums. After presenting research supporting the policy change, the organization will work with regulators to revise the rules and regulations. This intervention will be evaluated based on whether the local policies were changed in our favor and the rate of alcohol consumption and alcohol related harms in the community. Successful interventions would lead to a limitation on alcohol retailers in the community and less alcohol consumption by individuals in the community.

The next intervention is to increase awareness of resources available in the community for those struggling with alcoholism. In order to achieve this, community nurses will disseminate pamphlets and flyers to alcohol retailers to place in areas of high visibility. The educational tools will include information such as how to identify alcohol abuse in yourself, steps to take towards reducing alcohol intake or sobriety, resources, and dangers of not seeking help. The goal of the intervention is to place flyers in areas where customers frequent and give pamphlets with purchase of alcohol so that they are seen by the target demographic. The content of the flyers and pamphlets will be created by public health nurses, members of the community, and organizations like Alcoholics Anonymous, Livengrin, and Peace Valley recovery. The intervention will be evaluated by comparing the rate that individuals are using these resources and calling the help lines before versus after the intervention. If the intervention is successful, we expect there to be increased awareness about alcoholism and increased awareness about resources for those who are struggling with substance abuse.

Healthy People:

The main goal of Healthy People 2020 regarding substance abuse is to reduce substance abuse to protect the health, safety, and quality of life for all, especially children and adolescents. The Healthy People 2020 objectives that our plan supports are “increase the proportion of person who need alcohol treatment and received specialty treatment for abuse or dependence”, “reduce proportion of persons engaging in binge drinking of alcoholic beverages”, “reduce the number of deaths attributable to alcohol” (Substance Abuse, 2020).

Levels of Prevention:

Secondary: First Intervention — create a grassroots organization to influence policy regarding limiting alcohol retailers.

Tertiary: Second Intervention — offering resources to individuals struggling with alcohol abuse.

Conclusion:

Overall, this Northeast Philadelphia community has many advantages and disadvantages. After a windshield survey and plentiful research, our group has found that this network can benefit from a comprehensive, age-appropriate nutrition education program for students. Along with this, limiting alcohol outlet density found that by regulating the density of establishments selling alcohol there was a decrease in alcohol consumption and lower rates of motor vehicle crashes and other alcohol related harms (Campell, 2009). By utilizing the many strengths of this network, community and wellbeing nurses can build upon these to achieve several health and wellness goals.

Participation

The four of us decided to evaluate Northeast Philadelphia in eastern Pennsylvania. Specifically, the 19154 community. On November 11th, our group drove around this network in order to gather the data needed to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of the area. At 9 am, we met up in the Bensalem Gwynedd Mercy parking lot and began our windshield survey from there. The windshield survey is an evaluation of a chosen community through one’s own perceptions. This overview will incorporate an appraisal of four classes. This consists of the perceptions of the community, practical standings, administrations gave, and social parts of the network. Notwithstanding the windshield review, neighborhood statistics information was gathered. The above information displays the outcomes and nearby statistics information for the Northeast Philadelphia Community that we have chosen. Once the windshield survey was complete, each member of the group typed the findings into a google document. We then began to type the outline for our paper using the information that we had gathered. In order to make a cohesive and organized outline and paper, we met on zoom multiple times to discuss how we are going to tackle this task. We decided that it would be better if we all worked on each section of the paper together. We chose to do it this way so that each section flowed nicely into the next section. Along with this, everyone felt that they had an equal share of the assignment in the end. As a group, we have reread and edited the entirety of the paper to ensure that it includes all of the necessary information for the community of our choosing.

References

Campbell, C., Hahn, R., & Elder, R. (2009). The Effectiveness of Limiting Alcohol Outlet Density As a Means of Reducing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Harms. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Five Fall 2020 Funding Opportunities. Food Fit Philly. (2020, November 9). http://foodfitphilly.org/apply-now-five-fall-2020-funding-opportunities/.

Narayanan, L. (2020). Guide to Devising Great Community Outreach Strategies That Win Big. Call Hub. https://callhub.io/community-outreach-strategies/

Nutrition and Weight Status (2020). Retrieved October 25, 2020, from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/nutrition-and-weight-status

NCCDPHP: Community Health. (2013). https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dch/programs/communitiesputtingpreventiontowork/communities/profiles/both-pa_philadelphia.htm.

Philadelphia Department of Public Health. (2014). Community Health Assessment.

Point to homes. (2020). Near Northeast Philadelphia Demographics. https://www.point2homes.com/US/Neighborhood/PA/Philadelphia-County/Philadelphia/Near-Northeast-Philadelphia-Demographics.html

Point 2. (n.d.). Near Northeast Philadelphia Demographics. https://www.point2homes.com/US/Neighborhood/PA/Philadelphia-County/Philadelphia/Near-Northeast-Philadelphia-Demographics.html

Smalarz, M. (2014). Northeast Philadelphia. The encyclopedia of great Philadelphia.https://philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/archive/northeast-philadelphia-essay/

Smoke-Free Program Blends Faith and Healthy Lifestyle — A CDC Preventive Health and Health Services Block Grant Success Story. (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2020, from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/healthy-people-in-action/story/smoke-free-program-blends-faith-and-healthy-lifestyle-%E2%80%93-a-cdc-preventive-health-and-health-services

Substance Abuse. Substance Abuse | Healthy People 2020. https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/substance-abuse/objectives.

United States Zip Codes. (2020). ZIP Code 19154. https://www.unitedstateszipcodes.org/19154/

Warner, K., Rector, C., Rector, C., Warner, K., Allender, J. (2014). Community & Public Health Nursing: Promoting the Public’s Health. (n.p.): Wolters Kluwer Health.